住民票は仕事先、居住地と複数あっていけないか

久方ぶりにかなり知的興奮を感じる本に出会った。山下祐介『地方消滅の罠ー「増田レポート」と人口減少社会の正体』である。先にいわゆる「増田レポート」を真正面から説いた御本人(増田寛也元総務相)の本『地方消滅』は取り上げた。「『地方消滅』を悲観論に終わらせるな」というタイトルで紹介(2015・2・15)したが、この本に何かしっくりこないものを感じたことは事実で、あまり評価はできない印象を持った。それから一か月ほど経って雑誌『世界』の4月号で、同じ著者の論文「隘路に入った復興からの第三の道」を読み、いたく感動した。「この国の中枢と末端をつなぐ問題解決回路の欠如」を強調した上で、自治と政策、マスコミ世論と政策、そして科学と政策の回路といった三つのフィードバックを確保すべきだと訴えていたのである。よし、このひとの本を読もうと、思うに至った▼増田氏らの主張の一枚看板である「選択と集中」は「地方切り捨て」「農家切り捨て」「弱者切り捨て」に帰着するという。東京一極集中を避けるために、地方の拠点を「地方中核都市」などと銘打って選択し、そこに人口を集中させることは結局ミニ東京やミニミニ東京を地方に作ることであって、その周辺の小さい町はどんどん切り捨てられることになる。そうではなくて地方の側からの発信を主軸にしたものが必要だ、と。「増田レポート」は「特定の政策提言集団の意見表明であり、どう見ても首都圏ないしは中心側から見た地方論である」というのだ。「大国経済」に国家のスタンスを置き、国際的な経済競争力に強い関心を持つ生き方が強く打ち出されているのだが、それでいいのかと問いかけ、もう一つの対抗軸を示す。「ふるさと回帰」「田園回帰」論である。「集落を残すか」や「過疎対策は必要か」などの議論は枝葉であって、ことの本質は文字通り国家のあり方を問うことなのだ、と。思えばこうした対立軸は今までにも”出ては消え、消えては出た”ものであり、そう珍しくはない。ただ、このレポートがあまりにも衝撃を持って登場しただけに、心底からの対論が必要とされてきているといえよう▼この本の魅力は、具体的な提案を上げているところにある。例えば、現在の「選択と集中」につながる「自治体間人口獲得ゲーム」に代わっての新しいゲームを「価値観を競う論理対抗ゲーム」と位置付けているのは面白い。さらに人口減少社会に立ち向かうためにあげている三つのポイントが興味深い。一つは、未来の適切な組み込み。第二に人口減少をプラスに生かす社会づくり。第三に、多様な住民を認めるというものだ。この三番目は大いなる発想の転換だ。住民票は一か所にしかおけないという現在の固定した観点から複数に変えようというものである。確かに、住んでいて寝るために帰る町と、昼間働いている町というように、多くの働く人たちは二か所以上の町と縁が濃い。ここらから時代を変える新たな仕組みが出てきそうだというのである▼私が住む姫路市も平成の大合併で53万人の人口を持つに至った。つい先日には「播磨圏域連携中枢都市圏」なるものを石破地方創生相出席のもとに立ち上げたところだ。周辺の農村部はますます過疎化を強める一方で、姫路市にのみひとを集めようとしているかに見える。香寺町、安富町、家島町、夢前町などかつての郡部の町村が今や姫路市に組み込まれている。そこに住む人々の福祉やサービスは向上したのか。またそのさらに外にある福崎町、宍粟市、たつの市、佐用町、赤穂市、相生市、太子町などの過疎化は進む一方ではないのか。もっとお互いの交流を強め、連携を強化するところから相互の発展に寄与する道を探そうというのが本来の狙いのはず。しかし、現実はますます彼我の乖離が増すのではないのかとの危惧も。こういった観点を一体どうするのか。明日から始まる選挙戦で問われてこよう。しかと見つめる機会にしたい。(2015・4・18)

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